In a recent blog post by Kristen Gregerson of Satori Software you may learn A Terrible Tale where the identity of two different real world individuals were merged into one golden record with the most horrible result you may imagine associated with a recent special day related to the results of the other kind of matching going around.
As reported by Jim Harris some years ago in the post The Very True Fear of False Positives the bad things happening from false positives in data matching is indeed a hindrance for doing data matching
If we do data matching we should be aware that false positives will happen and we should know the probability of that it happens and we should know how to avoid the resulting heartache.
Indeed using a data matching tool is better than relying on simple database indexes and indeed there are differences in how good various data matching tools are at doing the job, not at least doing it under different circumstances as told in the post What is a best-in-class match engine?
Curious about how data matching tools work (differently)? There is an eLearning course available co-authored by yours truly. The course is called Data Parsing, Matching and De-duplication.