I always wanted to make the above headline, but unfortunately one of the hardest things to do is documenting the direct link between data quality improvement and competitive advantage. Apart from the classic calculation of the cost of returned direct mails most other examples have circumstantial evidences, but there is no smoking gun.
Then yesterday I stumbled upon an example with a different angle. A travel company issued a press release about that new strict rules requires that your name on the flight ticket have to be exactly spelled the same and hold the same name elements as in your passport. So if you made a typo or missed a middle name on your self registration you have to make a correction. Traditional travel companies do that for free, but low-cost airlines may charge up to 100 Euros (often more than the original ticket price) for making the correction.
So traditional travel companies invokes a competitive advantage in allowing better data quality – and the low-cost airlines are making profit from bad data quality.